The letters of the English writing system have confusing relationships with the sounds of the English language.
To beginning and struggling readers of English, the relationships between letters and sounds is complexly confusing. Letters can sound like their letter names (ape, oatmeal, zebra), they can be silent (lamb, knight, guess), they can represent other letter’s sounds (giant, my, is), they can represent a spectrum of sounds related to their name-sound (ace, fast, fall), they can have sounds completely different from their name-sounds (clock, yes, xylophone), they can combine to represent sounds not represented by any other single letters (ch, th, wh, sh, ti, si, ci, tu,), and they can individually or in combination represent sounds of other single alphabet letters (c=k, x=z, ph = f). Working through these confusing relationships (before attention runs out of time) is what most challenges most beginning and struggling readers.
an agency for advancing the clarity of consciousness about changes in scientific uncertainty
The ‘c’ sound changes as the ‘e’ shifts the ‘a’ sound from act to ace.
It is important to live well. I like live performances.
- Does it sound like its letter name?
- If not a letter-name, which of its other sounds?
- Is it a silent letter?
- Does it stand alone or combine with others?
- Does its sound run together with its adjacent letters’ sounds or is there a pause before or after it?